In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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He could correct the computer’s data, instruct the machine via flow diagrams, and in general interact with it very much as he would with another engineer, except that the “other engineer” would be a precise draftsman, a lightning calculator, a mnemonic wizard, and many other valuable partners all in one.

Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis. Computing machines will do the routinizable work that must be done to prepare the way for insights and decisions in technical and scientific thinking. The latter specify precisely the individual steps to take and the sequence in which to take them.

Engineers who have had experience in the field of automatic speech recognition take a conservative attitude symbilsis the feasibility.

J.C.R. Licklider (1915-1990)

That compound question is asked whenever sophisticated data-processing systems are discussed. Engineers who work and live with computers take a conservative attitude toward the desirability. This is one of several operator-team problems in need of careful study. What is the difference between big data and data mining?

The computer will be able to refer to it repeatedly, but not to change it. Putting those two considerations together brings the estimate of the time required to achieve practically significant speech recognition down to perhaps five years, the five years just mentioned.

J. C. R. Licklider – Wikiquote

If some form of tight coupling is achieved, the symbiotic relationship may be very positive and adaptive. It soon became apparent that the main thing I did was to keep lickllder, and the project would have become an infinite regress if the keeping of records had been carried through in the detail envisaged in the initial plan.


In addition, men will handle the very-low-probability situations when such situations do actually arise. Technology advances are making human-computer symbiosis a real possibility. Nevertheless, I obtained a picture of my activities that gave me pause. If computing machines are ever to be used directly by top-level decision makers, it may be worthwhile to provide communication via the most natural means, even cmputer considerable cost. For the purposes of real-time cooperation between men and computers, it will be necessary, however, to make use of an symbiosiw and rather different principle of communication and control.

Ninety-eight per cent correct recognition of naturally spoken decimal digits was demonstrated several years ago at the Bell Telephone Lickkider and at the Lincoln Laboratory [4], [9].

They will formulate hypotheses.

This discussion includes a statement on the currently understood definition of the term computeras a wide class of calculating, data-processing, and information-storage-and-retrieval machines c.

The differences in speed and in language, of course, pose difficulties that must be overcome. As his personal motivating force, Streeter considers Licklider to be positing an escape from the limitations of the mode of computer use during his time, which was batch processing. Poincare anticipated the frustration of an important group of would-be computer users when he said, “The question is not, ‘What is the answer? Nurmikko, “An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical circuit dynamics in moving primates,” Journal of Neural Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, at URL http: Congress on Acoustics, Stuttgart, Ger.

Laboratory experiments have indicated repeatedly that informal, parallel arrangements of operators, coordinating their activities through reference to a large situation display, have important advantages over the arrangement, more widely used, that locates the operators at individual consoles and attempts to correlate their actions through the agency of a computer.


Clark, “Simulation of self-organizing systems by digital computers. At least half of the problem of memory organization appears to computdr in the storage procedure.

About 85 per cent of my “thinking” time was spent getting into a position to think, to make a decision, to learn something I needed to know. Have we already begun the journey toward complete or partial symbiosis?

These systems certainly did not consist of “dissimilar organisms living together Other information is of relevance only to one or two operators. The Associated Press has no qualms about such things, though. But they could not subjectively describe how the warmth of the sun felt upon the face, or the waxing and waning energy of the crowd, or the thrill of victory versus the agony of defeat.

Nowhere, to my knowledge, however, is there anything approaching the flexibility and convenience of the pencil and doodle pad sybmiosis the chalk and blackboard used by men in technical discussion.

Licklider Describes “Man-Computer Symbiosis” :

Business situations usually move slowly enough that there is time for briefings and conferences. There will nevertheless be a fairly long interim during which the main intellectual advances will be made by men and computers working together in intimate association. The properties just described do not include all the desired ones, but they bring computer storage into resonance with human operators and their predilection to designate things by naming or pointing.

There are many man-machine systems. At one point, it was necessary to compare six experimental determinations of a function relating speech-intelligibility to speech-to-noise ratio.